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The Top 500 Most Common Information Technology (IT) 
Terminology & Acronyms

The IT industry has its own lingo, Zephyr is here to help you navigate the vast sea of technical terms and acronyms for many of the most common terms in information technology and business today.

Glossary of Information Technology (IT) Terms & Acronyms

All | # A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing
Creating three-dimensional objects by adding material layer by layer.

5S Methodology
A system for organizing and maintaining a clean and efficient workplace in manufacturing.


ABA Model Rules
Ethical standards and guidelines set by the American Bar Association.

ABC Analysis
Classifying inventory items based on their importance and value.

Access Control
The management of who can access specific resources or data.

Access Control List (ACL)
Rules that specify which users or systems are allowed access to resources.

Agile Development
An approach to software development that emphasizes collaboration and flexibility.

AI (Artificial Intelligence)
The development of computer systems capable of performing tasks that typically require human intelligence, such as learning, reasoning, and problem-solving.

Notifying administrators of backup or recovery issues.

A step-by-step set of instructions for performing a specific task or solving a problem.

Analytical Instrumentation
Devices and equipment used for analyzing and measuring scientific samples.

Antivirus Software
Software designed to detect and remove malicious software (viruses, malware) from a computer or network.

API (Application Programming Interface)
A set of rules and protocols that allow different software applications to communicate and interact with each other.

API Gateway
A server that manages and secures API requests.

Archival Storage
Long-term storage of data that may not be frequently accessed.

Asset Management Software
Applications for managing investment portfolios and assets.

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)
A high-resolution imaging technique used in nanoscience.

Attorney Regulation and Discipline
Procedures for disciplining lawyers for ethical violations.

Attorney-Client Privilege
Confidential communication between an attorney and a client.

A formal review or examination of an organization's processes, practices, or records to ensure compliance.

Audit Report
A document summarizing the findings of an audit.

Audit Trail
A record of actions and changes to data for audit purposes.

The process of verifying the identity of a user, system, or application.

The process of granting or denying access to specific resources or actions.


A copy of data created to safeguard against data loss in case of system failures or other issues.

Backup Encryption
Securing backup data with encryption to protect against unauthorized access.

Backup Frequency
How often backups are performed (e.g., daily, hourly).

Backup Location
The physical or virtual location where backup data is stored.

Backup Monitoring
Continuous surveillance of backup processes and systems.

Backup Reporting
Generating reports on backup status and performance.

Backup Retention Policy
The guidelines for how long backups are retained.

Backup Schedule
A defined plan for when and how backups are performed.

Backup Software
Applications or tools used for data backup.

Backup Storage
Dedicated storage for holding backup copies.

Backup Verification
Confirming that backups are successful and restorable.

Data transfer capacity in a network.

Bare Metal Server
A physical server dedicated to a single customer in an environment.

Bare-Metal Backup
Creating a full system backup, including the operating system, for complete recovery.

BI (Business Intelligence)
Technology and software for collecting, analyzing, and presenting business data to support decision-making.

Big Data
Extremely large and complex data sets that require specialized tools and techniques for storage, processing, and analysis.

Billing Software
Software used for time tracking and generating client invoices.

Biometric Authentication
Access control using physical characteristics like fingerprints.

BIOS (Basic Input/Output System)
Firmware that initializes hardware components during computer startup.

The smallest unit of digital information, representing either a 0 or a 1.

Blockchain Technology in Finance
The use of blockchain for secure and transparent financial transactions.

A wireless technology used for short-range communication between devices.

A network of compromised computers controlled by a malicious actor.

Software used to access and view web pages and other online content

Brute Force Attack
An attack that systematically tries all possible password combinations to gain access.

A programming error or flaw that causes a software application to behave unexpectedly or improperly.

Business Continuity
Ensuring business operations continue in the event of a disaster.


A storage location for frequently accessed data, designed to speed up data retrieval.

CAD (Computer-Aided Design) Software
Tools for creating detailed construction plans and drawings.

Capacity Planning
Assessing and optimizing manufacturing capacity to meet demand.

CDN (Content Delivery Network)
Network of servers to deliver web content.

Change Order Management
The process of documenting and approving changes to a construction project.

AI-driven virtual assistants for customer engagement and support.

CIS Controls
The Center for Internet Security's best practices for enhancing cybersecurity defenses.

CISO (Chief Information Security Officer)
An executive responsible for an organization's information security.

Client Confidentiality Agreements
Legal contracts that ensure the confidentiality of client information.

Client Portal
Secure online platforms for clients to access client-related information.

Cloud Access Security Broker (CASB)
A solution for securing cloud services.

Cloud Backup
Backing up data to cloud-based storage services.

Cloud Compliance
Adherence to regulatory requirements in cloud computing.

Cloud Computing
The delivery of computing services over the internet, such as storage, processing, and software.

Cloud Management Platform (CMP)
Software for managing cloud resources.

Cloud Migration
Moving applications and data to a cloud environment.

Cloud Security
Measures and practices for securing data and applications in cloud environments.

Cloud Security Alliance (CSA)
A nonprofit organization focused on cloud computing security.

Cloud Security Assessment
Evaluating and enhancing security in cloud environments.

CMMC (Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification)
A framework for assessing and certifying the cybersecurity practices of government contractors.

COBIT (Control Objectives for Information and Related Technologies)
A framework for governing and managing enterprise IT.

Cold Site
A disaster recovery facility without pre-installed equipment.

Hosting servers and infrastructure in a data center facility.

Adhering to specific laws, regulations, and standards in IT practices.

Compliance Audit
An examination of an organization's adherence to compliance standards.

Compliance Framework
A structured approach to managing and measuring compliance efforts.

Compliance Management System
Tools and processes for ensuring adherence to government regulations.

Compliance Officer
A professional responsible for ensuring an organization's adherence to regulations.

Computer-Aided Design (CAD)
Software for creating detailed designs and schematics of products.

Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM)
Software that assists in the automation of manufacturing processes.

Contactless Payments
Payment methods using near-field communication (NFC) technology.

Packaging applications and dependencies for efficient deployment.

Content Marketing
Creating and sharing valuable content related to real estate to attract potential clients.

Contention Ratio
The ratio of users to available bandwidth in a network.

Contract Award
The process of selecting a contractor and signing a formal agreement.

Contract Lifecycle Management (CLM)
The management of contracts from initiation through execution to analysis.

Contract Management Software
Tools for managing the entire contract lifecycle, from creation to execution.

Small pieces of data stored on a user's computer by a website to track user activity.

CPU (Central Processing Unit)
The core component of a computer that executes instructions and performs calculations.

Critical Infrastructure Protection
Safeguarding essential systems like power and water.

CRM (Customer Relationship Management)
Software for managing interactions and relationships with customers and potential customers.

Decentralized digital currencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum.

Cryptocurrency Compliance
Adhering to regulations when dealing with cryptocurrencies and blockchain-based assets.

Cryptocurrency Wallets
Software and hardware solutions for storing and managing digital currencies.

The practice of secure communication through the use of codes and ciphers.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
A language used for formatting the appearance of web pages.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) for Real Estate
Software for managing interactions with buyers, sellers, and renters.

Cyber Attack
An intentional, malicious effort to breach security defenses.

Cyber Hygiene
Best practices for maintaining a clean and secure digital environment.

Cyber Insurance
Insurance policies that protect against financial losses due to cyber incidents.

Cyber Resilience
The ability of an organization to withstand and recover from cybersecurity incidents.

Cyber Threat Intelligence
Information on emerging and potential cybersecurity threats.

Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) Security
Protecting interconnected systems in manufacturing that involve both physical and digital elements.

The practice of protecting computer systems, networks, and data from theft, damage, or unauthorized access.

Cybersecurity Compliance
Adherence to regulations and practices for protecting legal data.

Cybersecurity Framework
Guidelines and best practices for managing cybersecurity risk.

Cybersecurity Policy
A document outlining an organization's approach to cybersecurity.

Cybersecurity Risk Assessment
The process of identifying and evaluating potential cybersecurity risks.


Dark Data
Unstructured, unused, or unknown data in a network.

Data Archiving
Storing infrequently accessed data for long-term retention.

Data Backup
The process of creating copies of data to prevent data loss in case of system failures or issues.

Data Breach
Unauthorized access, exposure, or theft of sensitive data.

Data Center
A facility used to house and manage computer systems and data storage.

Data Center Compliance
Meeting regulatory requirements in data center operations.

Data Center Consolidation
Combining multiple data centers into fewer locations to reduce costs and improve efficiency.

Data Center Migration
Relocating data centers to ensure disaster recovery.

Data Center Operations
Daily management of data center facilities

Data Center Redundancy
Duplication of data center components to ensure availability.

Data Center Security
Measures to protect data center assets.

Data Center Tier Classification
Levels of data center reliability and redundancy.

Data Deduplication
Removing duplicate data to reduce storage requirements.

Data Encryption
Securing data with encryption to protect against unauthorized access.

Data Encryption Standard (DES)
A widely used encryption algorithm for securing data.

Data Leakage
Unauthorized or accidental exposure of sensitive data.

Data Loss Prevention (DLP)
Strategies and technologies to prevent the unauthorized transfer or disclosure of sensitive data.

Data Minimization
Collecting only the data necessary for a specific purpose.

Data Mining
Extracting meaningful patterns and information from large datasets.

Data Privacy Impact Assessment (DPIA)
An analysis of the impact of data processing activities on data privacy.

Data Privacy Laws and Regulations
Understanding and complying with privacy laws and regulations, such as GDPR and CCPA, when handling client data.

Data Protection Impact Assessment (DPIA)
An analysis of the impact of data processing on data protection.

Data Replication
Creating duplicate data copies to ensure data availability.

Data Residency
The physical location of data in cloud services, often related to data privacy regulations.

Data Retention Policy
Guidelines for managing and storing data for compliance and legal purposes.

Data Storage
The process of storing, managing, and retrieving data.

Data Visualization Tools
Software for creating visual representations of data.

Data Warehousing
Centralized storage and retrieval of large quantities of data.

A structured collection of data organized for easy access and management.

Database as a Service (DBaaS)
Cloud-based database management.

Database Backup
Backing up databases to protect critical data.

Datacenter Recovery
The process of restoring operations at a data center.

DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service)
An attack that floods a network or website with excessive traffic, rendering it unavailable.

The process of identifying and fixing errors or bugs in software code.

Decentralized Finance (DeFi)
Financial services built on blockchain technology without traditional intermediaries.

The process of converting encrypted data back into its original form.

Demand Forecasting
Predicting future customer demand for products to plan production and inventory.

Demand Planning
Forecasting and planning for the demand of products in manufacturing.

DFARS (Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement)
A set of cybersecurity requirements for defense contractors.

Differential Backup
Backing up all data that has changed since the last full backup.

Digital Banking
Providing banking services and transactions online and through mobile apps.

Disaster Recovery (DR)
Planning and processes for restoring IT systems after a disaster.

Disaster Recovery as a Service (DRaaS)
Outsourcing disaster recovery to a service provider.

Disaster Recovery Plan
A documented strategy for restoring IT systems in case of disaster.

Disaster Recovery Plan (DRP)
A documented strategy for restoring IT systems in case of disaster which will includes planing for the physical location and access controls as-well as any required environmental factors and related for systems access and /or remote access in the event of a disaster and a "fail-over" is required for recovering the IT systems as well as the subsequent "fail-back" process and requirements for restoring the business technology systems.

Disaster Recovery Site
An alternate location for data and operations in case of a disaster.

Disaster Recovery Testing
Periodic tests to ensure the effectiveness of recovery plans.

DLP (Data Loss Prevention)
Technologies for preventing data leaks and breaches.

DNS (Domain Name System)
A system that translates domain names into IP addresses for network routing.

Document Management System (DMS)
Software for organizing and securely managing documents and files.

Document Retention Policies
Guidelines for the storage and disposal of documents and records.


E-Discovery Software
Tools for managing and reviewing electronic documents for litigation.

E-PHI (Electronic Protected Health Information)
Electronic patient health information governed by HIPAA.

E-signature Solutions
Electronic signatures for signing documents.

Edge Computing
Processing data closer to the source for low-latency applications.

eDiscovery (Electronic Discovery)
The process of discovering, collecting, and producing electronic evidence in legal cases.

A nonprofit organization focused on information technology in higher education.

Scaling cloud resources up or down based on demand.

Electronic Discovery (eDiscovery)
The process of identifying, collecting, and producing electronically stored information (ESI) for legal proceedings.

Electronic Health Record (EHR)
Digital records of a patient's health information.

Electronic Medical Record (EMR)
Digital records of patient health information within a single healthcare organization.

Electronic Signatures in Legal Documents
Using digital signatures to execute legal agreements securely.

Email Autoresponders
Automated email responses to inquiries and requests.

Email Marketing
Sending property-related emails to potential buyers or renters.

Emergency Notification Systems
Technology for quickly communicating safety alerts to construction workers.

The process of converting data into a code to protect it from unauthorized access.

Endpoint Security
Measures to protect individual devices (e.g., laptops, smartphones) from security threats.

ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning)
Integrated software for managing all aspects of a business.

ERP Integration
Integrating ERP systems with processes to streamline operations.

A standard for wired network connections.


Returning to primary systems after a failover event.

Switching to backup systems or services when primary systems fail.

FAR (Federal Acquisition Regulation)
U.S. regulations governing procurement processes for federal contracts.

FCC (Federal Communications Commission)
U.S. agency regulating communications, including telecommunications.

Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR)
The set of rules and guidelines governing federal procurement.

FedRAMP (Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program)
A program for standardizing security assessment and authorization for cloud products and services.

File-Level Backup
Backing up individual files or directories.

A network security device or software that monitors and filters incoming and outgoing network traffic based on established security policies.

Firewall Rules
Configurations that determine what traffic is allowed or blocked by a firewall.

Software embedded in hardware devices.

FISMA (Federal Information Security Management Act)
U.S. law for securing federal government information systems.

FOIA (Freedom of Information Act)
U.S. law providing public access to government records.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
A standard network protocol used for transferring files between computers.

Full Backup
Creating a complete copy of all data in a system or application.


GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation)
European Union regulations for data protection and privacy.

Gene Editing Security
Ensuring the safe and ethical use of gene-editing technologies, such as CRISPR-Cas9.

Setting geographic boundaries for network access.

Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
Technology for capturing, managing, and analyzing geographic data.

Geographic Redundancy
Replicating data and systems across geographic locations.

Geospatial Information Systems (GIS)
Tools for spatial data analysis and mapping.

GLBA (Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act)
U.S. law governing financial institutions' data security and privacy.

Government Compliance Management
Ensuring government agencies adhere to applicable laws and regulations.

Government Contracting
The process of obtaining contracts to provide goods or services to government agencies.

Government Regulatory Compliance (GRC)
Ensuring government agencies conform to specific industry or sector regulations.

GSA Schedule
Contracts awarded to vendors that provide goods and services to federal agencies.


A person who gains unauthorized access to computer systems or networks.

The physical components of a computer or electronic device.

Health Information Exchange (HIE)
The electronic sharing of patient data among healthcare organizations.

Health Information Management (HIM)
The practice of managing healthcare data and information.

Health Information System
Integrated systems for managing and storing health data.

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
U.S. law for protecting patient privacy and data security.

Healthcare Information Systems
IT systems used in healthcare for various purposes.

High Availability (HA)
Designing systems to minimize downtime and ensure continuous operation.

High Availability Cluster
A group of interconnected systems that provide redundancy and failover.

HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act)
U.S. healthcare industry regulations for data privacy and security.

HITECH Act (Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act)
U.S. legislation promoting the adoption of EHRs.

HL7 (Health Level 7)
A set of standards for exchanging electronic health information.

Hot Aisle/Cold Aisle
Arrangement to optimize data center cooling.

Hot Site
A disaster recovery facility with fully operational systems and data.

HPC (High-Performance Computing)
The use of supercomputers for scientific simulations and data analysis.

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
The standard markup language used to create and format web pages.

HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure)
An encrypted version of HTTP used for secure data transmission.

Hybrid Cloud
Combining public and private clouds for greater flexibility.

Software that enables virtualization on physical servers.


IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service)
Cloud services providing virtualized computing resources.

Identity and Access Management (IAM)
Processes and technologies for managing user identities and access.

Image-Based Backup
Capturing a snapshot of an entire system for recovery.

Incident Response
The process of managing and mitigating the aftermath of a cybersecurity incident.

Incident Response Plan
A documented strategy for responding to cybersecurity incidents.

Incident Response Plans
Procedures for addressing security incidents.

Incremental Backup
Backing up only data that has changed since the last backup.

Initial Coin Offering (ICO)
Fundraising using cryptocurrency tokens and blockchain technology.

Internet of Things (IoT) Device
A device that uses the internet for communications that does not require a computer.

Intrusion Detection
The process of identifying unauthorized access or malicious activities on a network.

Intrusion Detection System (IDS)
A security system that monitors network traffic for suspicious activities and intrusions.

Intrusion Prevention System (IPS)
A security system that not only detects but also takes action to prevent potential intrusions.

Inventory Control Software
Tools for managing and optimizing manufacturing material and product inventory.

IoT (Internet of Things)
The network of interconnected physical devices that can communicate and exchange data.

IP Address
A unique numeric label assigned to each device participating in a computer network, used for identification and addressing.

IP Whitelisting/Blacklisting
Allowing or blocking specific IP addresses.

IPsec (Internet Protocol Security)
A protocol suite for securing internet communications.

ISO 14001
An international standard for environmental management systems.

ISO 20000
An international standard for service management systems.

ISO 27001
An international standard for information security management systems (ISMS).

ISO 9001
An international standard for quality management systems in manufacturing.

ITAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations)
U.S. regulations governing the export and import of defense-related articles and services.

ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library)
A set of practices for IT service management.


A widely used programming language for creating web and mobile applications.

A programming language used for creating interactive web pages and web applications.

Just-In-Time Inventory
A strategy for reducing inventory to minimize storage costs.


The practice of continuous improvement in manufacturing processes.

Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
Metrics used to measure the performance and success of something affecting its performance.

Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) in Manufacturing
Metrics used to measure the performance and success of manufacturing operations.

Know Your Customer (KYC) Compliance
Procedures and technologies for verifying the identity of clients and customers.

KVM Switch (Keyboard, Video, Mouse Switch)
Hardware for managing multiple servers.


LAN (Local Area Network)
A network that connects computers and devices within a limited area, like a home, office, or campus.

The delay in data transmission in a network.

Lean and Six Sigma
DMADV is the acronym for Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, and Verify, the Lean Six Sigma method for designing new processes and products. DMAIC is the acronym for Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control, the five key phases of the Lean Six Sigma framework used in solving business and process problems.

Legal Hold
A legal requirement to preserve specific documents or data.

Load Balancing
Distributing network traffic across multiple servers.

Local Backup
Storing backup data on-site, often on external drives or network-attached storage.


Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Communication
Communication between machines and devices in manufacturing for automation and data exchange.

A broad term for malicious software, including viruses, spyware, and ransomware.

Malware Analysis
The process of dissecting malicious software to understand its functionality and intent.

Malware Signature
A unique pattern or characteristic used to identify specific malware.

Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) Attack
Intercepting and altering communication between two parties without their knowledge.

Information about data, such as creation date, author, or file size.

Mirror Backup
Creating an exact copy of data in real-time.

Mobile Device Management (MDM)
Software for managing and securing mobile devices used in construction.

Mobile Payment Solutions
Mobile apps and platforms for making payments and transfers.

MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching)
A protocol for efficient data transfer.

Using multiple cloud service providers for redundancy or specific services.

Multifactor Authentication (MFA)
A security method that requires multiple forms of verification for access.


Network Attached Storage (NAS)
Storage devices connected to a network for file sharing.

Network Latency
Delay in data transmission over a network.

Network Protocol
A set of rules for data exchange between devices on a network.

Network Security
Measures to protect data during transmission across networks.

Network Security Policies
Rules and procedures for securing a network.

Network Segmentation
Dividing a network into isolated segments for security.

NFV (Network Functions Virtualization)
Virtualizing network functions for flexibility.

NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology)
Federal agency that provides cybersecurity and compliance guidance.

NIST Compliance
Adhering to the cybersecurity framework developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

NIST Cybersecurity Framework
The National Institute of Standards and Technology's framework for improving critical infrastructure cybersecurity.

Failing to meet regulatory requirements or standards.


Offsite Backup
Storing backup data at a remote location to protect against physical disasters.

Open Data Initiatives
Programs that encourage government agencies to share data with the public.

Open Source
Software or projects with source code available for modification and redistribution.

Operating System (OS)
System software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides various services for computer programs.

Contracting third-party providers for IT services.


PaaS (Platform as a Service)
Cloud services offering development and deployment tools.

Packet Sniffing
Capturing and inspecting data packets to monitor network traffic.

Password Manager
Software that securely stores and manages passwords.

Password Strength
The effectiveness of a password in resisting attacks.

A software update or fix provided to address known vulnerabilities or bugs.

Patch Panel
Hardware for connecting and managing network cables.

Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS)
Security standards for handling credit card data and transactions.

Payment Gateways
Tools that authorize and process online payments from customers.

PCI DSS (Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard)
Standards for securing payment card data.

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Payments
Direct transfers of funds between individuals through mobile apps.

Fines or other punitive measures imposed for non-compliance.

Penetration Test (Pen Test)
A controlled, simulated attack on a system to identify vulnerabilities and weaknesses.

Penetration Testing
Ethical hacking to identify network vulnerabilities.

Personal Health Record (PHR)
Patient-controlled digital records of their health information.

A deceptive technique used to trick individuals into revealing personal or confidential information.

Phishing Attack
Deceptive attempts to trick individuals into revealing sensitive information.

Physical Access Control
Restricting entry to data center facilities.

PII (Personally Identifiable Information)
Information that can be used to identify an individual.

PKI (Public Key Infrastructure)
A system for managing digital certificates and keys used for secure communication.

PLC (Programmable Logic Controller)
A digital computer used to control manufacturing processes.

Point of Presence (PoP)
Locations where internet service providers connect to a network.

PPC (Pay-Per-Click) Advertising
Online advertising where advertisers pay for clicks on their ads.

Privacy by Design
Incorporating data privacy into the design of systems, applications, and processes.

Privacy Policy
A document that outlines how an organization handles personal information.

Private Cloud
A cloud infrastructure used exclusively by a single organization.

Private VLAN
Isolating devices on the same network for added security.

Process Automation
The use of technology to automate and control processes.

Protected Health Information (PHI)
Sensitive patient information protected under HIPAA.

Public Cloud
Cloud services offered by third-party providers for public use.

A versatile and high-level programming language often used for web development and data analysis.


Quality Control Automation
Implementing technology to automate quality control processes and ensure compliance with quality standards.

Quality Management System (QMS)
Software and processes for ensuring product quality and compliance with industry standards.

Quantitative Analysis
Using mathematical and statistical models for financial decision-making.


Rack PDU (Power Distribution Unit)
Distributing power to rack-mounted equipment.

Rack Space
Space for hosting servers and equipment in a rack.

Rack Unit (U)
A unit of measurement for rack-mounted equipment.

RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks)
A data storage technology that combines multiple disk drives into a single unit.

RAM (Random Access Memory)
Temporary memory used for storing data that the CPU is currently working on.

Malware that encrypts a victim's data and demands a ransom for decryption.

Recovery Plan
A documented strategy for restoring IT systems in case of disaster.

Recovery Point Objective (RPO)
The maximum allowable data loss in a disaster.

Recovery Site
A location where systems can be restored in a disaster.

Recovery Testing
Regular testing to ensure successful data recovery.

Recovery Time Objective (RTO)
The maximum acceptable time for systems to be down.

Red Team vs. Blue Team
Simulating security attacks (Red) and defenses (Blue).

Redacted Document
A document from which confidential or privileged information has been removed.

Duplication of critical systems for fault tolerance.

Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID)
Storage technology for data redundancy.

RegTech (Regulatory Technology)
Technology solutions designed to help financial institutions comply with regulations.

Regulatory Compliance
Conforming to legal requirements set by government agencies or industry bodies.

Request for Information (RFI)
An informal document used to solicit information from potential vendors and contractors for the purpose of evaluating them as potential candidates to participate in a RFQ or RFP.

Request for Proposal (RFP)
A formal document used to solicit a comprehensive set of services or solutions to solve a business need with questions to assist in the selection of a potential vendors and contractors.

Request for Quotation (RFQ)
A semi-formal document used to solicit price quotes for a prescribed product or set of solutions from potential vendors and contractors.

Retainer Agreement
A contract outlining the terms of legal representation and fees.

RFID (Radio-Frequency Identification) in Construction
The use of RFID tags to track and manage construction materials.

Right to Be Forgotten
The right for individuals to request the erasure of their personal data.

Risk Assessment Tools
Software for assessing the risk associated with systems.

Risk Management Software
Tools for assessing, monitoring, and mitigating financial risks.

Risk-Based Authentication
A security approach that adapts authentication requirements based on perceived risk.

Root (Superuser)
The highest level of access and control in a computer system.

Malicious software that gives unauthorized access while hiding its presence.

A networking device that directs data packets between computer networks, ensuring efficient data transmission.

RTO (Recovery Time Objective)
Maximum acceptable downtime for disaster recovery.

Ruggedized Devices
Tough and durable mobile devices designed for construction site conditions.


SaaS (Software as a Service)
Cloud services providing software applications via the internet.

Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX)
U.S. legislation that sets requirements for financial reporting and internal controls.

A framework for agile project management and product development.

Secure Coding
Writing software with security in mind to prevent vulnerabilities.

Secure Communication Tools
Encrypted email and messaging platforms for secure communications.

Secure Digital Wallets
Digital wallets that store payment information securely for online and mobile transactions.

Secure Document Collaboration
Tools for secure collaboration on documents among teams and clients.

Secure Document Sharing
Platforms for securely sharing documents with stateholders and third parties.

Secure Email Communication
Encrypted email platforms for communicating sensitive information.

Secure Enclave
A protected and isolated computing area.

Secure File Sharing
Tools for securely sharing and collaborating on documents.

Secure Messaging Apps
Encrypted messaging applications for confidential communications.

Secure Online Payment Gateways
Secure platforms for processing online payments and transactions.

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) Certificates
Encryption certificates for secure data transmission.

Security Assessment
An evaluation of an organization's security posture.

Security Assessment and Authorization (A&A)
The process of evaluating and authorizing information systems for use.

Security Audit
A systematic evaluation of an organization's security infrastructure and policies.

Security Awareness Training
Education provided to employees about cybersecurity threats and best practices.

Security Breach
A security incident where an unauthorized party gains access to a system or data.

Security Cameras
Surveillance cameras for monitoring and securing properties.

Security Certificate
A digital document that verifies the identity of a website or entity and enables secure connections.

Security Incident
An event that could potentially harm an organization's security.

Security Incident Response Plan (IRP)
A documented strategy for responding to cybersecurity incidents.

Security Information and Event Management (SIEM)
Tools for monitoring and managing cybersecurity events.

Security Patch
An update or modification to a software product to fix vulnerabilities.

Security Patch Management
The process of applying updates to software and systems to fix vulnerabilities.

Security Policy
A set of rules and guidelines defining an organization's approach to security.

Security Policy Enforcement
Ensuring that security policies are followed and enforced.

Security Token
A physical or digital device used for authentication.

SEO (Search Engine Optimization)
Strategies to improve the visibility of real estate websites in search engine results.

A computer or software system that provides services or resources to other computers, known as clients, over a network.

Serverless Computing
Running code without managing servers.

Service Level Agreement (SLA)
A contract outlining cloud service provider obligations and expectations.

Shared Responsibility Model
The division of security responsibilities between cloud providers and customers.

Short Messaging Service (SMS)
A text messaging service component of most telephone, Internet and mobile device systems.

SIEM (Security Information and Event Management)
A comprehensive system that provides real-time analysis of security events.

Single Sign-On (SSO)
A system that allows users to access multiple services with a single set of credentials.

Six Sigma
A data-driven approach for process improvement and quality control in manufacturing.

SLA (Service Level Agreement)
Contractual commitments regarding service quality.

Smart Locks
Electronic locks that can be controlled and monitored remotely.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
The protocol used for sending email over the internet.

A point-in-time copy of the state of a virtual machine.

SOC (Security Operations Center)
A facility for monitoring, detecting, and responding to cybersecurity incidents.

Social Engineering
Techniques used to manipulate individuals into revealing sensitive information.

Social Media Marketing
Promoting properties and services on social media platforms.

Programs and applications that run on a computer.

Software as a Service (SaaS)
Cloud-based software applications for legal tasks.

SOX (Sarbanes-Oxley Act)
U.S. legislation governing financial and accounting practices to prevent fraud.

SQL (Structured Query Language)
A domain-specific language used for managing and querying databases.

SSL/TLS Encryption
Secure socket layer/transport layer security for data encryption.

Storage Area Network (SAN)
A high-speed network for connecting storage devices to servers.

Storage Capacity
The amount of data that can be stored in a storage system.

Storage Compression
Reducing storage space by compressing data.

Storage Virtualization
Abstracting physical storage into virtualized pools.

System-Level Backup
Backing up an entire system, including the operating system.


Tape Backup
Backing up data to magnetic tapes for long-term storage.

TCPA (Telephone Consumer Protection Act)
U.S. law governing telemarketing and robocalls.

The online environment related to management of a system, typoically a SaaS application (Microsoft 365)

Third-Party Assessment
An evaluation by an external party to assess an organization's compliance.

Threat Actor
An individual or group responsible for a cybersecurity threat.

Threat Intelligence
Information about potential cybersecurity threats and vulnerabilities.

Two-Factor Authentication (2FA)
A security process requiring two forms of authentication for access.


UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply)
Backup power for critical equipment.

URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
A web address that specifies the location of a resource on the internet.

USB (Universal Serial Bus)
A standard for connecting and transferring data between devices.


Version Control
A system for tracking and managing changes to software code.

Video Conferencing
Virtual meetings for remote client meetings and legal proceedings.

Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI)
Centralized management of law firm desktops and applications.

Virtual LAN (VLAN)
Logical segmentation of a network into subnetworks.

Virtual Machine (VM) Snapshot
A point-in-time copy of a virtual machine's state.

Virtual Machine Replication
Duplicating virtual machines for failover.

Virtual Private Cloud (VPC)
Isolated virtual cloud networks.

Virtual Private Network (VPN)
A technology that creates a secure and encrypted connection over a public network.

Virtual Tape Library (VTL)
Emulating tape libraries for backup and recovery.

The process of creating a virtual, rather than a physical, version of something like an operating system or a server.

Malicious software designed to replicate and spread, often causing harm to computer systems.

Virus Definition
A database of known virus patterns used by antivirus software.

VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol)
Technology for making voice calls over the internet.

VPN (Virtual Private Network)
A technology that creates a secure and encrypted connection over a public network, often used for remote access or privacy.

A weakness or flaw in a system or application that can be exploited by attackers.

Vulnerability Scanning
Identifying and assessing vulnerabilities in systems.


WAN (Wide Area Network)
A network that spans a larger geographical area, connecting multiple LANs and often relying on public or private data transmission services.

Warm Site
A disaster recovery facility with some pre-installed equipment but not fully operational.

Web Hosting
A service that provides server space and resources for hosting websites.


XML (Extensible Markup Language)
A language for encoding documents that is both human-readable and machine-readable.


Zero Day Vulnerability
A security flaw unknown to the software vendor.

Zero Trust Architecture
A security model where no one, whether inside or outside the organization, is trusted by default.

Zero Trust Security Model
A security approach based on the principle of "never trust, always verify".

Zero-Click Attack
An attack that requires no user interaction.

Zero-Day Vulnerability
A security flaw in software or hardware that is exploited by attackers before the vendor releases a fix or patch.

Zero-Knowledge Proof
A cryptographic method for verifying data without revealing it.

Zero-Touch Provisioning (ZTP)
Automatically configuring network devices.

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